- The winter in India starts in November and ends in January. So many people stop being active in their gardens after summer, but many healthy vegetables (rabi crops) can also be cultivated in winter.
- This blog describes how to cultivate vegetables to grow in winter in India throughout the year with the proper selection of vegetables.
- Amazingly, we can grow healthy, nutritious vegetables in our home garden. So during winter also you should take care of your garden and maintain it well.
Winter Vegetable list in India:
- Top 25 winter vegetable names in India that can be grown during winter – spinach, potato, carrot, radish, tomato, cauliflower, green peas, lettuce, beetroot, cabbage, onion, cucumber, broccoli, okra, turnip, kale, capsicum, bitter gourd, brussels sprouts, asparagus, kohlrabi, leek, mustard greens, collard greens, Rhubarb, etc.
- The above winter vegetable list crops in India can withstand cooler temperatures, frost and chill seasons. But only a few well-known names of winter vegetables in India are listed below.
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The potato is also one of the most significant food crops in the world, and in the Indian economy, it is quite important. It is also one of the important vegetables grown in the winter season in India.
- The ideal month for growing potatoes is oct-dec.
- Half a billion people consume potatoes in developing countries.
- The potato production in India in 2022 is 53.58 metric tonnes.
- Uttar Pradesh predominantly produces potatoes.
- Potato is like bread in developing and underfed regions of scarcity.
- The staple food of EUROPE and NORTH AMERICA is potato.
- Potato is mainly consumed as potato fries or french fries.
- The potato tuber comprises 80%, and the rest portion is water.
- To grow potato soil should have an optimum ph of 5-6.
- Sandy soil with organic matter is best suitable for potatoes.
- Tuberization(the potato growth initiation) will occur at a temperature of 20-22C.
Important varieties of potatoes
Early Variety – kufri chandarmukhi,ashoka, pukhraj.
Mid variety – kufri jyoti, jawahar,sutlej, lalima,bahar, giriraj.
Late variety – Kufri sindhuri, Badshah, Swarna.
- The suitable varieties for processing are Kufri chipsona-1 and Kufri chipsona-2.
- Harvest time is 95-130 days.
- The places where potato is grown are Punjab, West Bengal, and Madhya Pradesh.
- CPRI is located in Himachal Pradesh, Shimla.
- Potato is majorly produced in Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh.
Tomato (solanum lycopersicum):
- Tomato also comes under an important vegetable to grow in winter in India.
- Origin -Peruvian and Mexican region
- The growing month of tomatoes is September-November.
- Seed germination temperature 18-27c.
- Seed germination time is 6-14 days.
- Tomato should be transplanted.
- Sowing depth 0.25 inch.
- The crop cycle is 60-70 days.
- Tomato can be grown throughout the year.
- Tomato is mainly used in ketchup, sauce, soup and chutney making.
- The composition of tomato is 90-95% moisture, 1% protein, 4%carbohydrates,0.5%fibre, 28mg phosphorus and 0.5 per cent iron.
- Tomato can be grown in heavy and sandy soil.
- Good heavy loamy soil is the best to get a better yield of the tomato crop.
- The pH range should be 6-7 because the tomato crop is highly pH sensitive.
The major tomato varieties are broadly classified into three types
1. Determinate types- Rupali. Avinash 2, F1 hybrids, Punjab chhuhara
2. Semi-determinate types– arka shreshtra and arka vikas
3. In determinate types– pusa uphar, Arka vishal F1.
- Major pest in tomato is aphids and fruit borers. To save our tomato crop from these insects, thiodan can be sprayed.
- Major diseases include early blight, late blight, damping off, leaf curly virus, tomato mosaic virus, and root-knot nematodes.
- These diseases can be controlled by using pesticides like captan or thiram @ 2g per kg of seeds.
- Seeds which is free from disease should be used.
- Tomato is grown majorly in Tamilnadu, Andra Pradesh.
CABBAGE: Brassica oleracea var. capitata
- In India, cabbage is one of the most widely produced winter crops.
- It comes under cole crops.
- Mostly it is consumed as a salad.
- The origin of cabbage is Europe.
- Cabbage has a lot of nutritional value and vitamins like C, B, and A minerals like calcium and potassium.
- Consuming cabbage is very much good for digestion, and it is also good for diabetic patients.
- But people with hormonal imbalances like thyroid should avoid consuming cabbage.
- Cabbage can be grown well in light soil with good fertility and moisture-retaining capacity.
- The ideal PH for cabbage growth is 5-6.
- A calm and chill climate is preferred for cabbage.
- Maximum germination occurs under 20-25C.
- The maximum head formation takes place from 15-20C.
- Important varieties of cabbage are golden acre, pusa mukta, pride of India, and pusa drum head.
- Hybrid variety: pusa hybrid cabbage 1, Bajrang F1, Swarna and sri ganesh gol.
- In North India for early crop sowing month is august-September.
- Planting will be done on flatbeds or ridge format.
- Apply Farm yard manure along with phosphorus, potash and half nitrogen.
- Weeds can be controlled by applying basalin four days before transplanting.
- Earthing up should be done five weeks after transplanting.
- Subsequent irrigation should be provided at every ten days intervals.
- Harvesting should be done when the head reaches marketable size.
- The major insect attack will be stem borer, diamondback moth, tobacco caterpillar, aphid, and cabbage butterfly can be controlled by spraying pesticides.
- The diseases that affect cabbage are damping off, black rot, Alternaria blight, downy mildew, cabbage yellows, and stalk rot.
- To control the above diseases, treat the seeds with capton or thiram@ 3g /kg of seeds.
- Cabbage is mainly grown in uttar pradesh, Orissa, and Bihar.
Cauliflower: Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis
- Cauliflower is also one of the essential vegetable crops in India.
- Its tender white curd is the edible part.
- If it is cooked along with potatoes, it tastes fantastic.
- Cauliflower is rich in vitamin C and folate and is a good source of potassium.
- Soil– early crop prefers sandy loam.
Late crops prefer clay loam.
- pH- 5.5 to 6.6 is the ideal ph for maximum yield.
- A cold climate is preferred for growth.
- The average temperature should be 15-20C.
Early season– Early kunwari, pant gobi 2, pusa deepali, and arka Kranti
Early mid-season-pusa sharad ,pusa Ashwini, pant gobi 4
Mid-late season– pusa synthetic, pant shubhra, pusa meghna, pusa himjyoti, Punjab giant 26
Late season varieties– pusa snowball1, pusa snowball k-1 and snowball16
- Harvesting should be done when curd matures.
- Cauliflower is majorly grown in west bengal,madhya pradesh, and Bihar.
PEA: Pisum sativum
- Origin -old continent
- Pea is a very much important vegetable in the agricultural economy.
- Peas are high in nutrition and rich source of vitamins A, B, C
- It is also rich in carbohydrates, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus.
- Mostly peas are frozen and used in the off-season.
- Soil- sandy to heavy soil, well-drained clay loams.
- Peas are sensitive to acidic soils.
- The ideal required PH is 6-7.
- It requires cool weather.
- The optimum temperature for seed germination is 20C.
- Peas can also germinate in low temperatures as low as 5 C.
Early season– Arkel, matar ageta-6, jawahar pea 54 and hissar harit.
Main season– punjab 87,88,89,bonneville,azad p-2
- Sowing of early season crops can be done from September.
- In the north side from october-november.
- For chemical weed control, use stomp 30 EC.
- Major pests in peas are pea thrips, pea aphids, pea leaf miners, and pea steamfly. Thimat can be used for controlling the pest.
- Diseases include powdery mildew, wilt root, rust, and white rot. Treat the seeds with bavistin @ 2g per kg.
- Pea requires four irrigation.
- Peas should be harvested at proper maturity. Over-maturity may lead to better-quality peas.
- Peas are grown in uttar pradesh, madhya pradesh, Bihar, and Maharashtra.
Onion: Allium cepa
- Onion is a commercial crop.
- Onion is a very much important vegetable in every kitchen.
- They are rich sources of iron, calcium, phosphorus,
- Cool weather is favourable for onions.
- Important onion varieties are punjab naroya,punjab red round,arka bindu, and pusa riddhi.
- In north India, it is grown from october-november.
- Transplanting is done when the seedling is 6-7 weeks old.
- Weeds can be controlled by spraying stomp.
- Irrigate the crop at 7-10 days intervals.
- To mature, it requires 120-150 days.
- Important insects thrip, onion maggots. Apply thimet for insect control.
- Important diseases are purple blotch, downy mildew, and onion smut. Treat the seeds with capton or thiram @ 2-3 per kg of seed.
- Onion is majorly grown in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, and Bihar.
Palak: Spinacia oleracea
- Origin– Ancient Persia
- Palak is also called beet leaf.
- Palak is a leafy vegetable grown in both tropical and subtropical regions.
- Palak is rich in fibre and iron, vitamins and minerals.
- Soil- Highly fertile soil with proper drainage.
- The ideal pH is 7
- Palak is a winter-season crop.
- Important varieties of palak are Punjab green, pusa harit, pusa Jyoti, pusa bharati, and ooty1.
- Sowing time- August-November.
- In the hilly region, it is sown from March to May.
- Important pest- aphids, which can be controlled by spraying malathion 50 EC.
- Important diseases- leaf spot, which can be controlled by bavistin @ 500g.
- Four hoeings can control weeds.
- Subsequent irrigation in the interval of 4-6 days is required.
- Harvesting can be done within 3-4 weeks.
- Yield- 200-500 quintals.
- Palak is widely grown in Tamil Nadu, Andhra pradesh.
Broccoli -Brassica oleracea var italica
- Origin – Italy
- Broccoli can be cultivated from September-November.
- It should be cultivated in rich fertile soil.
- The Harvest time of broccoli is 55-60 days.
- West Bengal, Bihar, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, and Haryana are the primary growing regions.
Beet root: Beta vulgaris
- Origin– Mediterranean Europe and North Africa.
- The crop duration of beetroot is 50-70 days.
- The best months to cultivate beetroot are august-December
- It is mainly grown in Haryana, Uttar pradesh
- Beetroot is enriched in vitamin A and iron.
Frequently asked question:
- What are the List of winter vegetables in india-Following are the list of wintervegetables in india spinach, potato, carrot, radish, tomato, cauliflower, green peas, lettuce, beetroot, cabbage, onion, cucumber, broccoli, okra, turnip, kale, capsicum, bitter gourd, brussels sprouts, asparagus, kohlrabi, leek, mustard greens, collard greens, Rhubarb, etc.
- Name of winter vegetables in india- winter vegetables in india are called as rabi crops.They are grown in october to november.